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Citing Sources

Research Manuals

What are citations?

Written and oral projects at the college level often require research. The sources used, including books, periodical articles, web sites, and interviews, must be documented in order to avoid plagiarism. Documentation means acknowledging the source of your information by including a citation at the end of the paper with a corresponding reference within the text of your paper. Citations include author, title, publication information, and anything else necessary to help the reader locate the original source.

Why is it necessary to document (or cite) sources?

  • citations allow the reader to check sources for themselves
  • citations show your knowledge of sources pertinent to your topic and give credibility and support to your arguments
  • citations give credit to people from whom you've borrowed words and ideas
  • failing to give credit is considered plagiarism

When don't I have to cite sources?

  • if the information is common or general knowledge (if a fact can be found in five or more sources, it is considered to be common knowledge)
  • if the information is completely your own idea

How do I use information from another source?

Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are three ways to use information from another source.

  • Quotations consist of text that is identical to the original and uses a narrow segment of the source. Quotations must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
  • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
  • Summarizing involves putting the main ideas into your own words, including only the main points. Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
BASIC HELP MLA APA CSE

Online Writing Lab

(Purdue Univ.)

MLA at OWL (Purdue Univ.) APA at OWL (Purdue Univ.) Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors

Research and Documentation Online

 (Diana Hacker)

Research and Documentation Online

(Diana Hacker)

Research and Documentation Online

(Diana Hacker)

CSE Quick Citation Guide

 

Citing Sources

(Duke Univ.)

MLA Official Site

 

OWL at Purdue

 

CSE Style: Biology and Other Sciences

 

   

Basic of APA Style Tutorial

 

 

Citation Tools

Note: We recommend double checking all results from these tools for accuracy and consistency with the assigned citation style.